The Center for Studies on Freedom of Expression and Access to Information (CELE) is an academic center dedicated to the promotion and protection of the right to freedom of expression and access to information. As such, CELE carries out research aimed at enriching the public debate and education, training and reflection activities in this area.

Since its creation in 2009, CELE has developed research, policy papers, and tools for journalists, civil society, government and academic institutions dedicated to the defense and promotion of these rights, especially in Latin America.
We invite you to visit our website.

In 2012, CELE created the Internet Freedom of Expression Initiative (iLEI), which aims to promote the implementation of human rights standards, particularly freedom of expression, on the internet. ILEI works with consultants in different countries developing research and organizing training initiatives. The Regional Legislative Observatory was developed within the framework of iLEI.
We invite you to read our research and publications on the CELE website.

Assumptions and objectives

The hypothesis that gave rise to the creation of the Legislative Observatory on Freedom of Expression proposed that, contrary to what had been happening with the freedom of expression laws in the region, legislative initiatives regarding Internet regulation imposed a more restrictive trend of freedom of expression. expression, potentially affecting the circulation of discourse in Latin America.

During the last two decades, significant progress has been made in the freedom of expression agenda at the regional level and, particularly over the past 5 years, this trend seems threatened, especially as important debates are reopened in the framework of the regulation of Internet.

Given the lack of systematization of complete and comparative information on the subject, in 2017 CELE, with the support of the National Endowment for Democracy (NED), created the Legislative Observatory within the framework of the Initiative for Freedom of Expression on the Internet (iLEI ).
The Observatory aims to monitor the impact of the debate around internet regulation on freedom of expression.
In addition, it aims to systematize and facilitate access to laws and bills that affect freedom of expression at the regional level; monitor legislative developments over time to detect (when possible) trends; provide an independent evaluation of the laws and bills under the standards and the test proposed by the Inter-American Human Rights System.


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Information was collected on laws and bills of recent years that could affect in some way freedom of expression both online and offline.
The collected laws date from 1997 onwards (with the exception of some specific cases) and, in the case of the bills, since 2012. The experts gathered information on both the legislative process of each law and project and on other relevant aspects for the circulation of the discourse and they put it in a template to carry out the specific analysis (the templates are available on this website).

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The analysis included both qualitative and quantitative aspects.
To do this, CELE developed, in collaboration with experts in the field, a structure for the database, setting the criteria to be analyzed, the data to be registered for each of the laws and the procedure.

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The research resulted in 4 articles from each of the countries that make up the Observatory and one article that highlights the regional analysis.
Both the Argentine and regional articles were in charge of CELE. We sought to visualize the information to bring it closer to users, which include students, activists, journalists and academics, among others.

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The analyzed countries were selected according to their representativeness at the regional level.

In 2017, the analysis was focused on Argentina, Peru, Ecuador and Mexico. While in 2018 Chile, Guatemala, Colombia and Paraguay were included.

Work team

In order to carry out the research and analysis, CELE worked with local experts in each country.
In Argentina, the research was done in-house from CELE, which also developed the regional analysis.

Agustina Del Campo
Project Manager and regional analysis

Agustina Del Campo has been the Director of CELE since 2016 and a researcher since 2012.
Lawyer and Master in International Law and Human Rights from American University Washington College of Law. Fulbright Research Fellow at Columbia University in New York (2015) and member of the expert group of the Global Project on Freedom of Expression and Access to Information from the same university. She was a consultant for the Organization of American States and Amnesty International Argentina, among others. She is a graduate and postgraduate professor in international law, human rights and the internet, and an author and collaborator in publications on the subject.
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Matías González

Matías is a lawyer graduated from the University of Buenos Aires. He specialized in Public International Law. He completed a Diploma in Management and Control of Public Policies at FLACSO and a Master's Degree in International Politics and Economics at the University of San Andrés, and worked as legal advisor in the Government of the City of Buenos Aires, in the National Human Rights Directorate of the Ministry of Security of the Nation and as Coordinator of Advisors and Institutional Relations in the Ministry of Production of the Nation. In addition, he participated in the negotiation of International Trade Agreements on Electronic Commerce and Trade in Services. Currently, he is coordinator of the CELE Regional Legislative Observatory on Freedom of Expression.

Andrés Calderón López

Andrés is a lawyer and a journalist. Master of Laws (LL.M.) from Yale University. Fulbright Scholar. Professor at the Faculty of Law of the Pontifical Catholic University of Peru (PUCP) and of the PUCP Graduate Schools, Universidad del Pacífico, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia and Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas. He is currently a central opinion editor and columnist for Diario El Comercio (Peru).

Daniela salazar

2017 - 2019

Daniela is a lawyer graduated from the Universidad San Francisco de Quito, where she currently works as vice-dean and professor at the College of Jurisprudence. She has a Master's (LL.M.) from Columbia University. She teaches a Master's degree at the Universidad Andina Simón Bolívar (Ecuador headquarters) and at the International Center for Political Studies of the National University of San Martín (Buenos Aires). She worked as a human rights specialist at the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights and has been a consultant and researcher for the United Nations, UNESCO, Human Rights Watch, among others.

Juan Carlos Arjona Estevez

Juan Carlos is a Law Degree and Master in Human Rights from the Iberoamericana University (Mexico). Candidate for a Doctor of Law from American University. He worked in the Human Rights Program of the Iberoamerican University (Mexico), which he coordinated the last two years. He was Hubert H. Humphrey Fellow 2008-2009 (Fulbright Scholar) at the University of Minnesota Center for Human Rights. He was a consultant for the Office in Mexico of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, the Supreme Court of Justice, the Superior Court of Justice of the Federal District, the Latin American Faculty of Social Sciences (Mexico), and USAID Mexico, through various projects that it implements in Mexico. Currently coordinates the EnfoqueDH Project, implemented by Chemonics

Franco Serra
(Argentina - Consultant)


Franco is a lawyer graduated from the University of San Andrés (UdeSA). Previously, he worked on transparency issues at the Ministry of Social Development of the Nation and also collaborated in Innocence Project Argentina. She was a research assistant at the UdeSA Center for Anticorruption Studies and the Law Department of the same university. Until August 2020, he served as Coordinator of the Regional Legislative Observatory on Freedom of Expression of CELE. He is currently a Consultant at CELE's Regional Legislative Observatory on Freedom of Expression.

Daniel Caballero Olmedo


Lawyer from the Universidad San Francisco de Quito, with a sub specialization in human rights. He served as a legal services and community liaison attorney at Asylum Access Ecuador, and was part of the strategic litigation team. He is currently an advisor to the Technical Jurisdictional Secretariat at the Constitutional Court of Ecuador.

Maia levy daniel


She is a lawyer graduated from the Torcuato Di Tella University. She is studying the Master in Public Policy at the same University. She was editor of the Argentine Journal of Legal Theory of the UTDT and carried out an exchange at the Université Paris X. She worked as a lawyer in the area of ​​Economic, Social and Cultural Rights at the Association for Civil Rights (ADC), and collaborated with Human Vigilancia de los derechos. Previously, she worked in the Legal and Technical Secretariat of the Government of the City of Buenos Aires. She is an assistant professor of Fundamentals of Private Law at UTDT. She was a researcher at the Initiative for Freedom of Expression on the Internet - iLEI until March 2018.
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Luisa Fernanda Isaza Ibarra

Luisa Fernanda Isaza Ibarra is a lawyer and researcher, graduated from the Pontificia Universidad Javeriana in Bogotá, Colombia. She is the Coordinator of Defense and Attention to Journalists of the Foundation for Press Freedom, where she works for the defense and promotion of freedom of expression and access to public information, with special emphasis on the digital environment. She is also a professor in the Chair of Law and Journalism at the Pontificia Universidad Javeriana.

Alvaro Castellanos

Álvaro is a researcher in Guatemala at the CELE Legislative Observatory. He is a lawyer and has a Master of Laws (LL.M.) with a specialization in Comparative and International Law from Columbia University. He is a founding partner of the law firm "Consortium Legal". He participated as an ad hoc judge in the case “Tiu Tojín vs. Guatemala ”before the Inter-American Court of Human Rights. He was Dean of the Faculty of Law of the Rafael Landívar University.

Patricia Pena

Patricia is a researcher in Chile at the CELE Legislative Observatory. She has a Master in Communication, Information and Society from the London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE). Master in Communication from the Diego Portales University of Chile. She has been part of the Freedom of Expression and Citizenship Program of the Institute of Communication and Image of the University of Chile. Researcher at the Center for Studies on Digital Inclusion and the Knowledge Society of the Universidad de La Frontera, and at FLACSO Chile. She is a founding member and part of the Board of Directors of Girls in Tech Chile Foundation and member of the Board of Directors of Protected Data Foundation.

Camilo Filartiga

Camilo is a researcher in Paraguay of the CELE Legislative Observatory. He is a lawyer from the Catholic University of Asunción, where he currently works as a professor at the UC Law School. He has a Master in Applied Political Studies from the International and Ibero-American Foundation for Administration and Public Policies of the Spanish Government. Specialist in Social Sciences with emphasis on human development by FLACSO Paraguay. National researcher of the Open Government Independent Review Mechanism of the Open Government Partnership.

Ximena Jimenez Garcia
(Mexico - Assistant)

Law student at the Universidad Iberoamericana in Mexico City, she is currently an advisor to the Supreme Court of Justice of the Nation.

Martina Rapido Ragozzino
(Ecuador - Consultant)

Martina is a lawyer graduated from Universidad San Francisco de Quito and has a master's degree (LLM) in international human rights law from the University of Notre Dame. She served as assistant to the vice president of the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child and researcher for the human rights area of ​​the think thank Southern Affairs. She worked as a project coordinator for the College of Jurisprudence of the Universidad San Francisco de Quito where she developed projects with different international organizations for the defense and promotion of human rights from the academy while leading the Research Group on Freedom of Expression. She carried out strategic litigation at a national and international level, both in the Clinic of Interest published by the San Francisco University and in private practice. She is co-author of the book "Reflections on the Right to Freedom of Expression". He is currently a legal fellow at RFK Human Rights.

Mariana Valente
(Brazil - Consultant)

Mariana is coordinator of the Brazilian chapter of Creative Commons and representative of Brazil on its international council. PhD in legal sociology from the Law School of the Universidade de São Paulo (USP), where she also obtained her master's degree and a law degree. During her PhD, she spent a period as a visiting researcher at the University of California, Berkeley (USA). Mariana also obtained a certificate in German law from the LMU University in Munich, Germany, on a DAAD scholarship. She was a researcher in the Linkage Program at Yale Law School (USA). She is a specialist in intellectual property by the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO Summer School).

She is also a researcher at the CEBRAP Center for Law and Democracy (Brazilian Center for Analysis and Planning) since 2008. Between 2012 and 2014, Mariana was a professor at the FGV Law School (Getúlio Vargas Foundation) and a researcher at her Technology Center. and Society. She was also legal coordinator at MAM-SP (Museum of Modern Art of São Paulo).

Mariana researches human rights and internet policies, copyright and access to culture, knowledge and education, gender, women's rights and technology. She is the author / organizer of the books "Da Rádio ao Streaming: Ecad, direito author e music no Brasil" (Azougue / FGV, 2016), "O Corpo é o Code: Legal Strategies to Confront or Revenge Porn" (InternetLab, 2016 ), »Deu nos Autos: internet no banco dos reús» (AASP, 2017), «Manual of authorial direction for museums, libraries and archives» (FGV, 2017), «Memórias Digitais: o estado da digitalização de acervos no Brasil »(FGV, 2017) and“ A Construção do Direito Autoral no Brasil ”(Letramento, 2019).

Thiago Oliva
(Brazil - Consultant)

Coordinator of research on Freedom of Expression at InternetLab. PhD student in International Law from the Faculty of Law of the University of São Paulo (FD-USP). She has a Master in Human Rights (2015) from the same institution, with a scholarship from the São Paulo State Research Support Foundation (FAPESP). Law degree from the same university (2011). Certificate in German law at Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München (2010/2011) with a grant from the Deutscher Akademischer Austauschdienst (DAAD). He received the Prize for the Best Academic Work in the First National Contest for Academic Studies, promoted by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and the Chair Sérgio Vieira de Mello (2012) in Brazil, in addition to the prize for the best article Academic in the postgraduate category in the III Monograph Contest of the European Union, promoted by the Delegation of the European Union in Brazil (2013). Author of the book «Minorias sexuais e os limites da liberdade de expressão no Brasil» (Juruá, 2015).

Victor Pavarin Tavares
(Brazil - Consultant)

Research intern at InternetLab. Law student at the Faculty of Law of the University of São Paulo (FDUSP), where he is part of the double degree program with the universities of Lyon 3, Lyon 2 and Saint Étienne in France. He participated in the Center for Law, Internet and Society (2017), the Environmental Law Workshop (2017), the Project for the Promotion of the Rights of Migrants (2017-2018) and the Study Group on Law and Regulation on Capitalism ( 2016), all linked to the FDUSP. She completed the IME-USP web interface summer course with HTML, CSS and Javascript (2018).

Josefina Del Campo
(Argentina - Communication and planning CELE)

Victor Cabezas placeholder image
(Colombia - Consultant)

Victor is a specialist in human rights and constitutional law. Master in Law from the Universidad Externado de Colombia, Professor at the College of Jurisprudence at the Universidad San Francisco de Quito and researcher at the Universidad de Los Andes in Bogotá, Colombia. He currently works as a lawyer associated with the Pérez Bustamante & Ponce law firm in Quito, Ecuador. He has worked on projects with the Inter-American Institute for Human Rights and directed a program on the National Assembly Radio. In addition, he is a columnist for the Vistazo Magazine.